2. Basic Commands

Tab. 2.3. Buit-in commands
Command Description
ls List
cd Change Directory
cat Displays file
cp Copy
mv Move
rm Remove
man Manual Pages
clear Clears terminal
pwd Shows Present Working Directory
env Show all environmental variables
echo Displays text
tail Last -n lines from file
head First -n files from file
grep Regual Expressions tool (parses input for regexp)
crontab Automatic tasks
sudo Switch user and execute command
apt install installs application (on Debian based systems)
apt search searches for application (on Debian based systems)
history Last executed commands
sed Stream Editor
awk Parses lines
uniq Remove duplicated lines
sort Sorts input
wc Counts characters and lines
export Set environment variable
chown Change Owner
chmod Change Permissions (mods)
du Disk Usage
df Disk Free (space)
file Show file type and metadata
whoami Shows user login
which Shows path to executable
find Finds file in the filesystem
locate Locates file (from updatedb database)
updatedb Scans filesystem and create database for locate
dmesg Debugging Messages
locale Localization
touch Creates empty file
alias Creates user defined alias
mc Midnight Commander
su Switch user
rsync Syncronizes two directories
ssh Secure Shell Connection

2.1. cd

  • cd ~
  • cd -
  • cd
  • cd ..

2.2. ls

  • ls -lh
  • alias l='ls -lAh --color=auto'